Four Exercises From Polgar’s Chess Middlegames

I got Laszlo Polgar’s “Chess Middlegames” as a birthday present from my girlfriend this January. As an introduction, I will give a short review of it, then we can move onto solving puzzles. The book itself is collossal: the book consists of 4158 positions, sorted out by themes. Honestly, it feels like more than enough of middlegame madness I would need for a long time. The positions presented are instructive, complex and cover a lot of your typical middlegame ideas. After all, Laszlo Polgar, the author of the book is notorious for presenting the chess world three undoubtedly genius chess players: his daughters Judit, Susan, Sofia. For this reason, the book actually reeks of professionalism as it displays the same method which was used to train his daughters. Without a doubt, if a player manages to study the book in a detailed fashion, it would have a great outcome. The only problem here lies in the fact, that for that all to happen, it is actually necessary to go through that book!

Starting to work with the book seems not to be all that easy either. Basically, it definitely need some sort pre-given self discipline and other traits, such as being able to work on positions independently. The book consists of chess and nothing but chess: diagrams, solutions, references, themes. Deciding where to start, how to work with the positions, in which manner – it’s all up for the reader. The book itself can be regarded multi-purpose, it is a great tool for chess coaches, and a great tool for the improving player. It is especially good for trying to deliberately work on weaknesses, given that a theme presented in the book addresses the problem. As I mentioned earlier, it presents a carcass for the complexiety which resides in the dreaded middlegame. To add even a secular dimention to it, on the back cover, there is one of my favourite chess quotes, by Tarrasch: “God has placed the middlegame before the endgame”. Indeed, it gives the book even a biblical feel.

So far, I haven’t really used the book yet, more like gone over a few puzzles. Curiously, there are a lot of themes in the book which I can regard as weaknesses in my play, so I have a lot to choose from, which makes the book very attractive for me. With this post, I am actually trying to establish a more structured way of working with the book. I have already done a post on Panchenko’s “Mastering Chess Middlegames”, so I thought I would follow it up. I have decided to regard the books of Panchenko and Polgar as the backbone of my middlegame training.

Similarly to the post on Panchenko’s “Middlegames”, I will now present the reader with four exercises from the book. For the exercises, I advise the reader to spare some time, at least one hour (with no disrespect to players able to solve them faster!). Scrolling even further down, there will be diagrams with the solutions with my own annotations of how I went though them.

I will also mention that these type of sessions consisting of four exercises has become my main method of going through more difficult puzzles. I have also found it a good tool in increasing the depth in my play.

The theme of these puzzles is liquidation, which is chosen because a) training these types of is always useful, b) it is something I need to work on. Anyway, here they are:

All are White to Move!

For me, the first one proved to be the most difficult. Overall I think I did better than with the Panchenko’s exercises (one reason would probably be that Panchenko gave a study for one exercise!). I managed to find the right idea three times, but of course I missed many subtleties. However, this is in my opinion what makes these puzzles worthwhile. As in a real game, even if you manage to find a nice idea, the following play could still pose practical problems. This is probably one reasons why these positions are piled up in a book!

The first position set up on my board.

Here are the solutions and my thoughts:

The first proved to be the most difficult for me.

The second one:

The third featured some very nice technical liquidation.

The fourth I had trouble with too, especially the assessment of the final position.

I hope you enjoyed reading my post. Until next time!

How I Started Playing the Spanish

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I have a peculiar story to offer on how I picked up the Spanish as my new main White opening.

I used to play the Scotch Gambit, with 5. e5. It served me very well, and took me to about 1800, but at some point, I started to dislike my positions. My opponents knew more and more theory and I felt I was being way too committal in my opening play. At last, I thought I should give some other opening a try. First, I wanted to venture into the Vienna with g3. Now, a lot of my openings feature g3 or g6, so I was thinking I could brush up my understanding of the fianchetto by adding a the Vienna Mieses variation into my repertoire. But this didn’t last for long, as I found Vienna Mieses a bit dull, especially as I play similar structures as Black in the Three Knights defence – as Black, it is very thrilling to defend g6, but as White it felt I could perhaps aim for some more. Of course my initial decision employing the Vienna had to do with the typical “I don’t want to learn loads of theory so I pick a sideline” approach.

So after some more thinking, I thought that I shouldn’t pick a quick fix, but a ‘friend-for-life’ opening. And of course my thoughts wandered towards the Spanish – the ‘one’ for the e4 player, as many grandmasters suggest. But how to start off by learning such a colossal opening? After doing some online research and asking a couple of friends to explain some of the ideas in the Spanish, it did start to see a lot of work. Now, I don’t have anything against work, but there are a lot of different views concerning the necessity of openings for the sub 2000 player. And I too agree that opening training should be done in a very careful fashion lest one finds oneself studying nothing but openings.  But then an unexpected find left me no doubt about picking up the Spanish opening.

After deciding that I should at least try learning the Spanish, I took to acquiring some reference books. So far, I had mostly used an Estonian book from 1962 to get to know openings that are new to me – a book by Nei and Rozenfeld “Avangute teooria” (“Opening Theory”). I have added a picture of the book as I find its design very appealing.

Now, Nei’s and Rozenfeld’s book offers a good, compact presentation of the Spanish opening and overall it’s a great, informative book written in the golden era of dynamic chess. But as I have an antiquarian bookstore that occasionally sells chess books right next to where I live, I thought I would go and have a look. Luckily, there were some new chess books on sale (technically old books, but new for me as I hadn’t looked into them before), and one of them was Paul Keres’s “Spanisch bis Französisch” (1969) (“From the Spanish to the French”) and as it cost 6 euros, I decided to buy it. I also bought some more Soviet-time chess books, as I have an inkling that I should buy those before they become deficit, though right know there are still fairly many of them available. I will probably write a post about those books soon, as I believe the English speaking chess community is be fairly unfamiliar with them. Also, they might provide some interest to chess book collectors. They are perfectly fine books for training too. So I went home with my books.

Upon arriving home, naturally, I started going through the books right away, focusing on the book by Keres in greater detail. The first thing  I noticed was that there was some writing on one of the pages in front:

The dedication is for the winner of the “12th radio-simultaneous”, by Jüri Randviir, Tallinn, 28th May 1970. Now I knew who Jüri Randviir was – he is a well-known chess player and author here in Estonia. However, I had no clue what a “radio-simultaneous” was. Luckily I have a friend, also an Estonian chess player, who I thought might know what it meant. So I asked Jüri Eintalu and he replied that “Jüri Randviir gave simultaneous tournaments on the radio. He was mailed moves that he sorted out and replied to on a radio-show.” My friend also added that he would sometimes fell asleep with the radio on, going “Berta two takes on Caesar three” through his sleep. So, after having realized I had got my hands on some peculiar piece of Estonian chess history, I proceeded to look further. On the next page, I found this:

The signature down below belongs to Iivo Nei, an Estonian chess legend. Iivo Nei has done a lot for Estonian chess – not only was he a great player, but he has also written books, organized tournaments, been involved in chess coaching etc. He even had a chess TV-show called “Chess School” which they aired during the Soviet times. The beginning melody sounded like this: IIVO NEI CHESS SCHOOL

And honestly, I thought that the scribbling besides Paul Keres was just the result of trying out the pen! However, at some point I started thinking logically – who would randomly scribble on such a book? Well, turns out, it was Paul Keres! For making sure the signature was legit, I did some research on the internet and found confirmation.

So, long story short – without having realized it, I had bought a signed book by Jüri Randviir, Iivo Nei and Paul Keres. Surely this was a sign that I should take up the Spanish as White, and perhaps use some better lines in the French as White. The book itself is, of course top quality. Also, as I have been thinking about brushing up on my German, the book is fitting for that purpose too. Now, after having played the Spanish as White for more than a month, I find it fascinating and I am very satisfied with it.

NB! I will be writing some theoretical posts about the Spanish opening as well. Therefore, this post can be regarded as an introduction to my upcoming series of posts on how to start with the Spanish.

Light Analysis: Thematic Ideas in the King’s Indian Defence

This game was played in an online chess league I am participating in. Why I found it interesting? Firstly, it featured the King’s Indian Defence – my favorite opening! And the thing with the KID is, is that it’s one of the openings you play more or less guided by ideas – the “soul”, so to speak … Very specific variations what you get for example in the Sicilian play a smaller role in making the opening work. Now, it is true that this game has been played by amateurs, such as myself, but with games like these, sometimes the ideas in the opening and middlegame are much more clearly exemplified. And this is exactly why I chose the game. See it yourself:

As you might have noticed, I am using the terms ‘idea’ or ‘plan’ throughout my annotation. This is something I have picked up lately. I am making big reforms in my opening repertoire – studying The Spanish as White and dumping some suspect lines (apparently there is a lot of them!). With that, I am also adapting a new method for learning openings – I will only “memorize” these kind of ideas or plans and form my opening knowledge upon them. This means no memorizing of tricky variations unless it is absolutely necessary (oh no!). It might be that for some players, learning the opening trying to understand the ideas behind it, is indeed the only sensible way, but I have to admit I have done some very inefficient studying with my openings. My love for gambits also has a part in that, where you really have to study these Nxf7 moves or otherwise you are just lost. But it has come to an end! I will write about my new, “saving mental energy” approach to openings soon as I am very excited about it.

Four Exercises From Panchenko’s Mastering Chess Middlegames

This post could be as well part of the “torture puzzles” series. Last summer my girlfriend brought me Panchenko’s “Mastering Chess Middlegames”. During that time, I felt I needed to work on my middlegame, so I thought it was a great choice of studying material. Well, it’s spring now and I still need to work on my middlegame (I probably need to work on it until the day I die, and perhaps even longer). And as I later found out, the book is very difficult! Anyway, I didn’t really work with the book until now – I looked at a couple of diagrams and that was it. There was one thing written in the book, which I guess discouraged me to pick it up earlier. The book consists of positions explained by Panchenko, then exercises and positions to play through. And in the book, it stands that I need to take 2-3 hours for 4-6 puzzles! So I figured that for me, it could be even longer! On a positive note, I finally managed to pull myself together and begin with at least trying to work with the book. I took the first four exercises from the “Defence” chapter as I have lately started to work on the defensive aspects of my play.

As the post could be regarded as a review, I will show also the cover of the book:

I will now give the reader the four positions from the book. If you want to try them on your own, please do not proceed reading until you think you have the solutions. I will also add that I put the positions up on my board too, as I need to train a bit with the physical board to feel more comfortable over the board. And also, these positions could take for hours, so it is maybe a good thing not to stare the screen for so long too.

(And sorry for the low resolution, I will fix it soon)



The first position is a rook ending and Black is slightly worse. It’s Black to move. I will give my thoughts along with the solution in the following diagram:

The second position features a slightly inferior for White. It is White to move and defend. Solution and my thoughts in the following diagram:

The third position features also an endgame. This time, it’s Black who is worse. Solution and my thoughts in the diagram:

So far, I had gone quite fast over them. I wanted to go over all of the puzzles briefly first, so I could later come back and concentrate on some unfinished lines. However, I never came back after the next one. It took me 1.5 hours to get the solution … However, I have a soft spot for studies, so I definitely enjoyed it, and the solution is indeed very pretty.

It is White to move and draw. Truthfully, I would have been enough to write the post only about this position.

Overall, I think I had a good experience with the Panchenko book. I definitely recommend it as an alternative for fast internet-based puzzles. I will be doing this definitely more.

A Day in the Blitz Office

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There is an interesting phenomena in losing with slower time controls for me. Around the time, when I understand that I am in trouble, but still have time left, I start looking for all sorts of tricks, miraculous escapes or even study-like solutions. Of course this doesn’t do anything – if you think you are losing, well you probably are! But in my opinion, there is a positive side to it – trying to survive makes a great tactical exercise or calculation training. So after a horrible game in the Lichess 4545League, I went on to play some blitz, as I was feeling sharp, and apparently had enough of defending a lost position … And turns out, I had a very fun blitz session! I somehow managed to get so many interesting games and opponents. At some point it felt like every single blitz game is worth some half an hour analysis, or even more. I will share the memorable ones here. Of course, the time control of these games is 5 minutes, so there will be some … inaccuracies.

Game 1: Unexplored Caro-Kann Territory

Not long ago I posted a variation in the Caro-Kann in in our study group’s forums. And for some reason, I managed to play the same variation again! Curiously, this “Uibos variation” in the Caro-Kann is surprisingly one of my more sound “inventions”.

Game 1 extra: The Birth of the Variation

While writing this, I realized what I am going to name my sci-fi chess movie, if I am ever going to take up directing – “The Birth of the Variation”. Anyway, the idea with exd first, and then h3, happened because I got confused if I have to take exd or not … However, it seems all of this offers some good kingside attacking chances. And as I have noticed with the help of a couple of friends, h3 is not always prophylaxis or keeping g4 clear. It prepares also the attack, if necessary.

Game 2: Patzering in the Fischer-Sozin

Now I will share with you my ventures in the Najdorf. Against this certain opponent, my nemesis of the day, I played 5 games. He was strong, I lost 4 of them, and drew one. But most of the games were really fun! Here my opponent fell twice in the opening, but managed to win later on. He was very fast and good otherwise. But in return, I managed to prove a couple of things in the opening:

Game 3: More Patzering in the Fischer-Sozin

The second act. Objectively I should be very embarrassed to share the game, as it bring such injustice for the sacrifice on e6. And I am, to some extent, but it was, of course, a very interesting game.

Game 4: Attacks in the King’s Gambit

Ok, since I should probably make at least some effort to disguise my inner patzer, I will keep the two painful losses the only losses I will show. To at least preserve some of the readers. So I proceed with a nice miniature in the King’s Gambit as black. To be honest, this Modern Cunningham defence works quite good for me in the King’s Gambit and is the main reason why I don’t fear the opening as Black. There are, of course, other defenses too, such as early g5 etc, but the Modern Cunningham I feel natural to play … and the Bishop’s Gambit is likely to transpose into these lines too.

Game 5: The Occasional Swindle

I started my blitz session today with actually a swindle. Since it seemed to have an impact on my later playing, I will share it here. My capability of swindles is actually a huge contributor to how I do in blitz. Some days, when I start losing, it’s basically over. Other days, well I bring some of the points back from Hades. To be honest, swindling can become very fun too, if you try to ignore the fact that you are blatantly losing.

Game 6: Unfinished Business

And now we come back to my old nemesis, The Trump. Now I had played four games with him already. Two games I lost from the Najdorf positions, one game I lost as white because of an optimistic sac on b5. And fourth, my brain doesn’t really want to remember. I don’t want to check either, could be something very ugly. Anyway, I rarely play d4 e5 these days, as I am trying to rehabilitate myself from it, but here I was quite fed up with Mr Trump. So I returned to my big guns.

Game 7: The Finale

And now for the finale! This game features one of the prettiest combinations I have played in a while in blitz! Not only it was against a fairly strong opponent, I also got my new Blitz peak with 2089! And I actually finished the day with breaking 2100, making it one year and two months between me breaking 2000 and 2100. Anyway, here it is:

Thank you for reading. I will also mention, that his was written with a slight tongue in cheek manner, I do not mean any disrespect to my opponents. Quite the opposite!

How to Lose in the Scotch Gambit

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This post is dedicated to exploring the wonderful world of the Scotch Gambit! Before going any further, it has to be said that the Scotch gambit is not often seen in top-level play. The reasons? While there are many motives within the Scotch Gambit for the amateur to try to make sense out of, it seems for the top players the defensive tries for Black to master are relatively easy.

What makes the Scotch gambit somewhat barren for the top players is probably the fact that there are two major outcomes of the opening in top play: a) with 4. Bc5, the tension in the center is to be released at some point; b) with Nf6 the game will be defined by a somewhat rigid structure. We will look at those cases later. However, what I just wrote is pretty much a fun fact for the amateur … In reality, there are many dangers in the opening for both sides, many ways to get dynamic play in and many ways to lose!

First stop: 4. .. Nf6 or Bc5

Fig. 1. The first stop in the Scotch gambit: 4. .. Nf6 or 4. .. Bc5.

This is actually a very important question what Black has to answer. Black can decide mainly between Nf6 and Bc5, or even d6 and Be7 ideas. Even if the choice is mainly made based on how the move feels and fits with the style of the player, it is very important. Playing without concrete knowledge of what is to come in 1. e4 e5 on move 4 is usually a bad idea and the Scotch Gambit is no exception!

Generally speaking, Nf6 exposes Black to many motives common in other variations of the Two Knights Defence. Black has to learn how to counter 5. 0-0 too. But the upside of Nf6 is that d5 gets in fairly easy and if played correctly, there will be no significant tention in the center to Whites advantage.

4. .. Bc5 of course avoids many of the common sharp motives connected with the Two Knights Defence, but makes it more difficult for Black to figure out what to do in the center. In the case of Nf6 and Bc5, d5 of course is the main mechanism for Black to equalize, but the way it is done is different in the cases of Bc5 and Nf6. 4. .. Bc5 does not support d5.

And if you decide to play Be7, one tip, do not do this:

Second Stop: 5. 0-0 or 5. e5

So Black has played the more popular 4. .. Nf6 and the move is passed to White. This is definitely a phase every White Scotch Gambit player has to go through. Now, everybody knows that 5. 0-0 leads to some very pretty sacrifices in the center. Yes, everybody! Also the Black side. But just look at it!

Unfortunately it does not lead to anywhere… Lets take the following game as proof:

5. 0-0 definitely has its own pros. It has a considerable surprise value, first off. Also there is a considerable chance the game will become messy which some players like or find interesting.

However, 5. e5 is the trendier move and there are reasons for it. Firstly, it is somewhat more flexible and positionally more critical. 5. 0-0 generates fast play for both sides, but there could be the cases where the fog is lifted and Black stands fine with no tension in the center. The aforementioned could be enough for some players to tend to avoid it, though.

Third Stop: 7. .. Bc5

So we have followed along the lines of 5. e5 – White strives for space and prepares f4-f5 (e5 usually offers good prospects of attacking on the kingside!). Positionally, also the c5 square will be an important matter. What is Black to do? A critical decision has to be made on 7th move. 7. .. Bd7 is the safer try for Black – without any complications, c6 is secured and Black can sit back and see how White struggles to show his teeth. However, there is a way for Black to pose some problems for White himself! 7. .. Bc5 is the more interesting try.

In many cases, the taking or not taking on c6 by White is a theoretical issue. I will provide an example:

Final Stop: ??

To conclude, the position after 7. .. Bd7 by Black leads to positional play. In the most usual continuation, Black gets the Bishop pair, but White has good prospects of maintaining a blockade on c5 and trying to create chances on the kingside with f4-f5, e5 supports the attack. In this case, the skill of the chess player starts to show. To survive in the final stop and happily get a win, I guess one just has to know how to play chess.

Torture Puzzle No. 1

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A series of calculation exercises.

The “Torture Puzzle” series is designed to discuss different puzzles which I have encountered on standard mode and found more difficult than others. “Torture Puzzles” presented in the blog give an insight to the flaws in my own thinking process as well as give an opportunity for the reader to have a go finding the solution. The positions can be considered calculation and visualization exercises!

First, the position is given without any analysis. NB! The reader should then stop and try to solve the puzzle. Afterwards the analysis is presented. Good luck with the puzzle!

This puzzle was rated 2021 on

White to move and win!

Do not continue any further if you don’t want to see the solution yet!

So apparently there was a lot of trouble for me to get this one right. As this is the first post on the topic, I will provide the reader an insight to the process of how I solve puzzles when there is no time limit.

Here are the things what I am used to go through in order:

  • a) Count pieces (if there are many on the board);
  • b) Evaluate first the King safety of the opponent, then my own.
  • c) Start scanning for tactical motifs which could be on the board.
  • d) Choose candidate moves.
  • e) Start the calculation. Now I usually go with the move I feel is the most natural. If I don’t find the solution, I will go to the next one. If I have gone through all the candidate moves and still don’t have a solution, I will search for extra candidate moves and start the process of calculation all over. I go through the moves again and again until I find the solution. Very important here is to find good moves for the opponent too! If a variation is promising, it is very important to go over it a critical manner, trying to find good moves especially for the opponent.
  • f) Make the move. Now often it could be that I get tired and just go with my intuition, but I try to avoid it. In this one though, I unfortunately went with my intuition.

Further analysis is given on the interactive chessboard:

I hope you enjoyed!

Thoughts on Dynamic Chess

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The term ‘dynamic chess’ is often used in characterizing a specific way of playing. It can be applicable to many phenomena: certain players, eras in chess history, schools of chess etc. Dynamic chess or play is also used to describe the nature of a certain position, be it in the opening, middlegame or even in the endgame … and undoubtedly there are good reasons why to use the description of ‘dynamic chess’ in all the aforementioned cases. However, this kind of terminological ambivalence might cause some trouble too, especially for the player who would like to incorporate the conception of dynamic chess into his studies.

One possible way to start exploring the concept of ‘dynamic chess’ is by having a look into chess history. Now this might fall far from the practical aspects of learning how to play good and interesting chess, but getting to know how chess was used to play certainly doesn’t hurt. It could even prove to be the opposite – the chess player’s psychological processes are certainly not only driven by accumulation of theoretical knowledge. Exploring the chess played in past and acquainting oneself with historical players could be a great asset in developing motivation. The idea of having role models is very common in chess because it adds an essential human factor to the otherwise strictly logical game. Also, one of the most approved methods of improving in chess is by mentorism, and chess history gives a vast selection of mentors to choose from!

In regards to dynamic chess in historical context, there are two eras which could be regarded as having an emphasis on dynamics. The first would be the era or romantic chess in the 19th century and the second era would be the post-war (WWII) period (e.g. 50’s and 60’s) in chess. These two eras were, of course, very different by nature.

In the 19th century, chess was yet to evolve into a sport, methodological approach to chess was non-existent and overall it could be said that chess was not as serious as it became later. People played for money in coffee shops … enjoying themselves without having to bother with 400 pages of theory in the Open Sicilian – the good times. And all of this could be seen reflecting in the chess played during those times – the chess played during those times was very combinational and the concept of prophylaxis and defence was not often used. During those times, many gambits in 1. e4 e5 were developed and some of the best attacking examples were produced (though it is often a misconception that no positional chess was played; see for example Harrwitz – Morphy 1958 (2)). However, it is not established that dynamic chess and romantic chess could be seen as similar. Romantic chess was very specific and for modern theoreticians, the popular openings during those times were fundamentally unsound. However, for the amateur who strives to improve, one could learn a lot from the chess played in the 19th century. While the openings might have been suspect, the fundamentally sound ideas of initiative, piece development and attacking were more or less in their pure form during those times. And this leads us to the connection between romantic chess and dynamic chess: to play dynamically means to be able to grasp the concepts of initiative, fast development and attacking.

While initiative, fast development and attacking largely constitute the practical aspects of dynamic play, the question of how to put the aforementioned elements into play in the correct way remains. The romantic era in chess came to an end when the theory of positional chess started to develop. Nimzowitsch, Lasker and Steinitz, to name a few, all had their saying on opening principles. In the early 20th century, chess theory evolved in a way which made it possible to methodically retain play for both sides in many. The existing openings were improved and many new openings (e.g. by the hypermodernists) were developed. Besides the emergence of complex defensive conceptions, prophylaxis etc., the evolution of chess theory naturally had a saying in how and when to attack.

Before continuing, it is probably important to provide the reader a definition of ‘dynamic play’. In his book “How to Play Dynamic Chess”, Valery Beim (2004: 7) gives the following guideline to understand dynamics in chess: “Dynamics should above all be understood as the capacity of pieces and pawns to move around the board.” This definition applies to all phases of the game, though mainly openings will be discussed.

The by-product of the development of chess theory in the first half of the 20th century were some dogmas which got a fair amount of critique in the post-war era. Issai Rozenfeld writes (1962: 12) that “modern” opening theory is characterized by trying to get the initiative already starting from the first moves – to lead the game into complex, combinational waters.
Rozenfeld explains further (ibid., 12):

“It is not by chance that some very sharp openings, such as the Sozin in the Sicilian have become popular. In many openings players tend to pick systems which give the opponent spatial or developmental advantage, but give in exchange some sort of compensation. This makes play sharp and gives more chances to play for a win. Nowadays the art of defence and positional shuffling of pieces is on such a high level that it takes more than just calm, precautious and passive play to get an edge against an opponent of equal strength. Therefore, the main characteristic of modern opening play is fighting for initiative in every possible way. However, sharp play has one interesting peculiarity. Namely, it usually takes sharp play by oneself to efficiently combat opponent’s sharp play. Calm play is rarely enough to counter sharp moves by your opponent. Therefore, grandmaster Tolush was right – chess is not a game for cowards. [. . .] It is important to remember that active counterplay is often the best defence.”

It is also very interesting to note how Rozenfeld explains the concept of development in the 60’s in comparison to the “classical positional play” played in the interwar era. Rozenfeld writes the following (ibid., 13):

“According to the principles of classical positional play, all pieces must be developed first and only after that it is possible to start with active operations. Up until that moment however, one must consolidate the position and develop pieces to better squares. Nowadays things are different. In modern theory it is often the case that mobilization of pieces takes place during the development of an attack. Moreover, the attack is often started in very early stages of the game.”

To illustrate the aforementioned ideas, the following examples are given by Rozenfeld in his (co-authored with Iivo Nei) book “Opening Theory” (Rozenfeld 1962: 12 – 18):

Attacking early in the Anglo-Grünfeld Defence:

Fighting for initiative in the Three Knights Defence:

Considering 5. Nd5! in the Three Knights Defence illustrates the fact that it is not advisable to play on a positional autopilot. For every position, it is wise to first of all spot the peculiarities and only then think of a concrete reply, be it positional or aggressive.

Rozenfeld provides us (1962: 15) with an example of concrete play by Alekine in Alekhine – Böök, Margate 1938 in a Queen’s Gambit Accepted. In this case, dynamical possibilities prove to be more important than material:

Another interesting thing to notice about dynamic opening play is approach to pawn structures. Pawns are the least mobile pieces on the board. The infrastructure of piece placement is defined by the placement of pawns. Therefore, it is very important to treat your pawns correctly – especially in phases of the game where piece development is important. In regards to dynamic play, positionally unorthodox approaches to pawn structures may provide interesting prospects in piece activity.

In the Caro-Kann Bronstein-Larsen Variation Black neglects its pawn structure to gain an open file:

In the following example provided by Issai Rozenfeld (1962: 10) in the Philidor Defence, Black creates isolated doubled pawns to achieve central presence and provide interesting paths for its pieces to move along:

To conclude, let’s return to the question on how to incorporate the conception of dynamic chess into studying. So far we have mainly discussed openings, but dynamics play certainly an important role in all the phases of the game. Unfortunately, the concept of dynamics in practical play is definitely not an easy idea to grasp, especially as there is no certain way to measure dynamics. Especially when the play is very concrete. But thinking about dynamics is certainly not useless. In the phases of the game, where strategic decision-making is necessary, thinking about dynamics is certainly a good way to evaluate the position. After all, it is necessary to make way into the opponent’s camp one way or another and checkmating is definitely a “dynamic operation”. Increasing the dynamic and attacking possibilities of a position certainly needs precision and might lead to unfavourable positions if executed incorrectly, but the option of doing so is certainly worth considering. It is suitable to end these thoughts quoting Issai Rozenfeld (1962: 15): “Many contemporary masters play by the following principle: being uncomfortable is fine, given that the opponent is also uncomfortable. This way of playing has better prospects than playing in a comfortable way, but allowing the opponent to be comfortable too.” … And manipulating with the dynamics of a position can certainly make things uncomfortable – or interesting – for both sides.